The new mechanized high yield technology in peanut planting is used in Wuyang. The highest yield of spring sowing peanuts is nearly 600kg per mu, and that of summer sowing peanuts is 430kg. Compared with the traditional planting method, the yield of peanut can be increased by more than 30% per mu, which is about 50~200kg, with an increase of 1000 yuan. It has changed the traditional idea that peanuts were a low-yielding crop.
Technical points: combine tillage and soil preparation, mechanized seeding, mechanized field management, mechanized harvesting.
1. Combined tillage and soil preparation.
The power machinery supporting combined land preparation machine is used. The mechanical deep ploughing should choose deep plough and deep scarification machine tillage. When the depth is more than 25cm, it requires the plowbody to achieve up tilling and down loosening, and good broken soil performance. Bulk subsoiler had better be used in deep scarification without leakage tillage phenomenon to deepen the tillage layer, break plough bottom layer, improve soil structure, make the soil loose and ventilate, improve cultivated land quality; increase the speed and amount of rainwater infiltration, increase the capacity of soil to store water, promote root infiltration, and increase drought and lodging resistance of crops. The soil should be deep, fine, flat and stubble free.
2. Mechanized seeding.
The use of peanut film mulching planter for sowing can realize one-time ridging, fertilization, spraying, film mulching, seeding, compaction and other complex operations. The vertical lodging-resistant varieties with short growth period, stable yield, concentrating fruits, shallow depth of fruiting, long optimum harvest period, difficult fruit falling, regular pod appearance, high quality, high yield, strong resistance to stress and suitable for mechanized production are selected. It is the sowing time for high yielding peanuts when the temperature of soil layer 5cm underground stabilizes higher than 15°C. The plastic mulching cultivation sowing can be 7 to 10 days in advance. The hole spacing for double-grain hole sowing is 16-22cm, 10-12cm for single grain hole sowing. The seeding depth is 3-5cm, and the seeding emergence rate is more than 95%. Row spacing is 75-90cm, row width is 55-60cm, line spacing on the row is 25-35cm and the row height is 8-12cm.
3. Mechanized field management.
In order to prevent diseases, insect pests and weeds in peanut growth process, chemical drugs are mainly used at present to prevent and control disease and insect pests, ensure normal growth. Timely control of diseases, insect pests and weeds by using plant protection machinery, and the selection and dosage of chemical drugs meet the requirements of agronomy. Give full play to the effective role of chemical drugs and try to prevent possible harm. Use high efficiency, low toxicity and low residue chemical drugs, safe and reasonable application methods.
4. Mechanized harvesting.
There are two main types of mechanized peanut harvesting: segment harvesting and combined harvesting. The harvesting period of peanuts should be determined by the peanut fertility and climatic conditions. When the plant is aging, the top stop growing and the upper leaves turn yellow, the base and middle leaves fall off, the full fruit index of a single plant reaches 80-90%, the fruit shell hardens and the seed kernel is full, it indicates that it has reached the harvest time.
The suitable conditions for mechanical harvesting are upright plant type, no lodging, strong stalk strength of peanut varieties, not easy to drop fruit and soil moisture content is under 18% during operation. Segmental harvesting is to use the peanut digging (harvesting) machine, peanut collecting machine and peanut picking machine with good agronomic performance to complete the digging of clean soil, spreading and airing, picking and collecting respectively. Combined harvesting is the use of peanut combine harvester to complete the excavation and loosening of soil, seedling pulling, clamping transport, fruit picking and selection, collection and bagging and other production links.
Before mechanized sowing operation, the land and seed conditions should meet the agronomic requirements. The seeder should reach the state of sowing after trial sowing and debugging. After mechanized sowing, artificial reseeding should be carried out at both ends of the land. Before mechanized combined harvesting operation, peanuts at the edge of the field should be harvested 2 to 3 meters in advance manually according to the width of the machine and tools, so as to avoid the loss of peanuts caused by the machine in the first row of harvesting or when the machine turns.
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